English grammar in use book with answers and interactive

11 11 A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate learners of English Fourth Edition ...- with ,answ.e·rs:·:',. ~.....__ \"11.: .....,_---- • · - • :---. --.• • • , ~ . ..- ~ -~··- ~·· Raymond Murphy

Thanks VII v111 To the student x To the teacher Present và past 1 Present continuous (I am doing) 2 Present simple (I do) 3 Present continuous & present simple 1 (1 am doing and I do) 4 Present continuous & present simple 2 (I am doing & I do) 5 Past simple (I did) 6 Past continuous (I was doing) Present perfect và past 7 Present perfect 1 (I have done) 8 Present perfect 2 (I have sầu done) 9 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) 10 Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing & I have done) 11 How Long have you (been) ... ? 12 For and since When ... ? và How Long ... ? 13 Present perfect và past 1 (I have sầu done và I did) 14 Present perfect and past 2 (I have done & I did) 15 Past perfect (I had done) 16 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) 17 Have và have sầu got 18 Used lớn (do) Future 19 Present tenses (I am doing I I do) for the future trăng tròn (I'm) going khổng lồ (do) 21 WiLL/shaLL 1 22 WiLL/shaLL 2 23 I wiLL và I'm going lớn 24 Will be doing & wiLL have done 25 When I vì I When I've sầu done When & if fv1odals 26 Can, could & (be) able to 27 Could (do) & could have sầu (done) 28 Must và can't 29 May & might 1 30 May and might 2 31 Have sầu to and must 32 Must mustn't needn't 33 Should 1 34 Should 2 35 Had better lt's time ... 36 Would 37 Can/Could/Would you ... ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations) IF YOU AR E N OT SUR EWHI CH UNITS YO U NEED TO STUDY, USE TH E STUDY GUIDE O N PAGE 326. ... Ill

If và wish 38 If I vị ... and If I did ... 39 If I knew... I wish I knew ... 40 If I had known ... I wish I had known ... 41 Wish Passive 42 Passive 1 (is done I was done) 43 Passive sầu 2 (be done I been done I being done) 44 Passive sầu 3 45 lt is said that ... He is said khổng lồ ... He is supposed to ... 46 Have sầu something done Reported speech 47 Reported speech 1 (He said that ... ) 48 Reported speech 2 Questions and auxiliary verbs 49 Questions 1 50 Questions 2 (Do you know where ... ? I He asked me where ...) 51 Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so I I hope so etc. 52 Question tags (vì chưng you? isn't it? etc.) -ing & to ... 53 Verb+ -ing (enjoy doing I stop doing etc.) 54 Verb+ to lớn ... (decide khổng lồ ... I forget lớn ... etc.) 55 Verb(+ object)+ khổng lồ ... (I want you to ... etc.) 56 Verb+ -ing or khổng lồ ... 1 (remember/regret etc.) 57 Verb+ -ing or lớn ... 2 (try/need/help) 58 Verb+ -ing or lớn ... 3 (Like I would Like etc.) 59 Prefer & would rather 60 Preposition (in/for/about etc.)+ -ing 61 Be/ get used to lớn something (I'm used khổng lồ ...) 62 Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -ing I accuse sometoàn thân of -ing etc.) 63 Expressions+ -ing 64 To ... , for ... & so that ... 65 Adjective+ khổng lồ ... 66 To ... (afraid to lớn do) & preposition+ -ing (afraid of -ing) 67 See sometoàn thân vì chưng & see sometoàn thân doing 68 -ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went khổng lồ bed early.) Articles và nouns 69 Countable & uncountable 1 70 Countable & uncountable 2 71 Countable nouns with a/an và some 72 A/an and the 73 The 1 74 The 2 (school I the school etc.) 75 The 3 (children I the children) 76 The 4 (the giraffe I the telephone I the piano etc., the + adjective) 77 Names with and without the 1 78 Names with & without the 2 .IV IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WH ICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE TH E STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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79 Singular and plural V 80 Noun+ noun (a tennis ball I a headache) 81 -'s (your sister's name) và of ... (the name of the book) Pronouns and determiners 82 Myself/yourself/themselves etc. 83 A friover of mine My own house On my own I by myself 84 There ... và it ... 85 Some & any 86 No/none/any Nothing/ nobody toàn thân etc. 87 Much, many, Little, few, a Lot, plenty 88 All I all of most I most of no I none of etc. 89 Both I both of neither I neither of either I either of 90 All, every & whole 91 Each & every Relative sầu clauses 92 Relative clauses 1: clauses with who/that/ which 93 Relative sầu clauses 2: clauses with và without who/ that/which 94 Relative clauses 3: whose/ whom/where 95 Relative sầu clauses 4: extra information clauses (1) 96 Relative clauses 5: extra information clauses (2) 97 -ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking khổng lồ Tom, the boy injured in the accident) Adjectives & adverbs 98 Adjectives ending in -ing & -ed (boring/bored etc.) 99 Adjectives: a nice new house, you look tired 100 Adjectives và adverbs 1 (quick/quickly) 101 Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/Late, hard/ hardly) 102 So và such 103 Enough và too 104 Quite, pretty, rather and fairly 105 Comparison 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.) 106 Comparison 2 (much better I any better I better và better I the sooner the better) 107 Comparison 3 (as ... as I than) 108 Superlatives (the Longest, the most enjoyable etc.) 109 Word order 1: verb+ object; place and time 110 Word order 2: adverbs with the verb 111 Still/ yet & already Any more I any Longer I no Longer 112 Even Conjunctions & prepositions 113 Although I though I even though In spite of I despite 114 In case 115 Unless As Long as Provided/ providing 11 6 As (As Iwa lked along the street ... I As I was hungry ...) 117 lượt thích and as 118 Like I as if I as though 11 9 For, during và while 1trăng tròn By và until By the time ... IF YOU ARE N OT SU RE WHI CH UNITS YO U NEED TO STUDY, USE TH E STUDY GUIDE O N PAGE 326.

Prepositions 121 At/ on/ in (time) 122 On time and in time At the end & in the end 123 In/ at/on (position) 1 124 In/ at/ on (position) 2 125 In/ at/on (position) 3 126 To/ at/in/into 127 In/ on/ at (other uses) 128 By 129 Noun+ preposition (reason for, cause of etc.) 130 Adjective+ preposition 1 131 Adjective+ preposition 2 132 Verb+ preposition 1 to lớn & at 133 Verb+ preposition 2 about/ for/ of/ after 134 Verb+ preposition 3 about và of 135 Verb+ preposition 4 of/for/from / on 136 Verb+ preposition 5 in/ into/ with /to/ on Phrasal verbs 13 7 Phrasal verbs 1 General points 138 Phrasal verbs 2 in/ out 139 Phrasal verbs 3 out 140 Phrasal verbs 4 on/ off (1) 141 Phrasal verbs 5 on/ off (2) 142 Phrasal verbs 6 up/ down 143 Phrasal verbs 7 up (1) 144 Phrasal verbs 8 up (2) 145 Phrasal verbs 9 away/ back Appendix 1 Regular and irregular verbs 292 Appendix 2 Present và past tenses 294 Appendix 3 The future 295 Appendix 4 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) 296 Appendix 5 Short size s (I'm I you've I didn't etc.) 297 Appendix 6 Spelling 298 Appendix 7 American English 300 Additional exercises 302 Study guide 326 Key to Exercises 336 368 Key lớn Add itiona l exercises Key lớn Study guide 372 Index 373 vi IFYOU ARE N OT SU REWHI CH UNITS YOU N EED TO STUDY, USE TH E STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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This is the fourth edition of English Grammar in Use. I wrote the original edition when I was a teacher at the Swan School of English, Oxford . I would lượt thích khổng lồ repeat my thanks lớn my colleagues & students at the school for their help, encouragement and interest at that time. Regard ing the production of this fourth edition, I am grateful khổng lồ N6irfn Burke, Annabel Marriott, Matthew Duffy, Liz Driscoll, jane Walsh, jeanette Alfoldi and Kamae Design. I would lượt thích to thank Cambridge University Press for permission to access the Cambridge International Corpus. Thank you also to the following illustrators: Humberto lớn Blanteo, Paul Fellows, Sophie Joyce, Katie Mac, lan Mitchell, Gillian Martin, Sandy Nicholls, Roger Penw ill, Lisa Sm ith, Dave Whamond & Simon Williams. .. VII

This book is for students who want help with English grammar. lt is wri tten for you khổng lồ use without a teacher. The book will be useful for you if you are not sure of the answers lớn questions lượt thích these: 0 What is the difference between Idid và Ihave done? 0 When vì chưng we use will for the future? 0 What is the structure after Iwish? 0 When bởi vì we say used khổng lồ vì chưng & w hen vị we say used to lớn doing? U When vì chưng we use the? 0 What is the difference between like and as? These và many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each po int. Level The book is intended mainly for intermediate students (students who have already studied the basic grammar of English). lt concentrates on those structures which intermediate students want to lớn use, but which often cause difficulty. Some advanced students who have sầu problems with grammar will also find the book useful. The book is not suitable for elementary learners. How the book is organised There are 145 units in the book. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems (for example, the present perfect or the use of the) are covered in more than one unit. For a các mục of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book. Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations và examples; on the right there are exercises. At the bachồng of the book there is a Key for you lớn kiểm tra your answers to lớn the exercises (page 336). There are also seven Appendices at the baông chồng of the book (pages 292-301). These include irregular verbs, summaries of verb forms, spelling & American English. Finally, there is a detailed Index at the bachồng of the book (page 373). How to use the book The units are not in order of difficulty, so it is not intended that you work through the book from beginning to kết thúc. Every learner has different problems & you shou ld use this book lớn help you with the grammar that you find difficult. lt is suggested that you work in this way: 0 Use the Contents and/or Index lớn find which unit giao dịch with t he point you are interested in. C If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study guide on page 326. ........ Study the explanations & examples on the left-h& page of the unit you have chosen. L Do the exercises on the right-h& page. Cl Check your answers with the Key. C) If your answers are not correct, study the left- hvà page aga in to lớn see what went wrong. You can of course use the book simply as a reference book without doing the exercises. ... VIII

Additional exercises At the baông xã of the book there are Additional exercises (pages 302-325). These exercises bring together some of the grammar points from a number of different un its. For example, Exercise 16 brings together grammar points from Units 26- 36. You can use these exercises for extra practice after you have sầu studied và practised the grammar in the units concerned. . IX

English Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book, but teachers may also find it useful as additional course material in cases where further work on grammar is necessary. The book will probably be most useful at middle- and upper-intermediate levels (where all or nearly all of the material will be relevant), and can serve both as a basis for revision and as a means for practising new structures. lt w ill also be useful for some more advanced students who have sầu problems with grammar and need a book for reference & practice. The book is not intended to lớn be used by elementary learners. The units are organised in grammatical categories (Present and past, Articles and nouns, Prepositions etc.). They are not ordered according to lớn level of difficulty, so the book should not be worked through from beginning khổng lồ kết thúc. lt should be used selectively & flexibly in accordance with the grammar syllabus being used & the difficulties students are having. The book can be used for immediate consolid ation or for later revision or remedial work. lt might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help. The left-h& pages (explanations and examples) are written for the student lớn use individually, but they may of course be used by the teacher as a source of ideas và information on which to lớn base a lesson. The student then has the left-hand page as a record of what has been taught và can refer to it in the future. The exercises can be done individually, in class or as homework. Alternatively (and additionally), individual students can be directed lớn study certain units of the book by themselves if they have particular difficulties not shared by other students in their class. Don't forget the Additional exercises at the baông chồng of the book (see To the student) . This fourth edition of English Grammar in Use has been revised and updated. There are no new units, but some of the exercises have been rewritten or replaced. An edition of English Grammar in Use without the Key is available. Some teachers may prefer this for use w ith their students. An on line version of English Grammar in Use is also available. X

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Study this example situation: Sarah is in her car. She is on her way to work. She is driving to work. This means: she is driving now, at the time of speaking. The action is not finished. Am/is/are+ -ing is the present continuous: am (=I'm) driving he/she/it is (=he's etc.) working we/you/they are (=we're etc.) doing etc. =I am doing something= I'm in the middle of doing it; I've started doing it và I haven 't finished : Please don't make so much noise. I'm trying t o work. (not I try) 0 'Where's Mark?' 'He's having a shower.' (not He has a shower) 0 Let's go out now. lt isn't raining any more. (not lt doesn't rain) 0 (at a party) Hi, jane. Are you enjoying the các buổi tiệc nhỏ ? (not Do you enjoy) C What's all that noise? What's going on? (=What's happening?} Sometimes the action is not happening at the ti me of speaking. For example: Steve sầu is talking to lớn a frikết thúc on the phone. He says: I'm reading a really good book at the moment. it's abou t a man who ... Steve sầu is not reading the book at th e t ime of speaking. He means that he has started it, but has not fi nished it yet. He is in the middle of reading it. Some more examples: 0 Kate wants lớn work in Italy, so she's Learning Italian. (but perhaps she isn't learning Italian at the time of speaki ng) 0 Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope lớn finish it next summer. You can use the present continuous with today I this week I this year et c. (periods around now}: 0 A: You're working hard today. (not You work hard today) s: Yes, I have a lot to vày. C The company I work for isn't doing so well this year. We use the present continuous when w e ta lk about changes happening around now, especially with these verbs: get change become increase rise fall grow improve begin start 0 Is your Engli sh getting better? (not Does your English get better) 0 The population of the world is increasing very fast. (not increases) C At first I didn't like my job, but I'm beginning lớn enj oy it now. (not I begin} Present conti nuous and presen t say đắm mple -+ Units 3-4 Present te nses fo r the future -+ Unit 19

Exercises I. U1nit The sentences on the right follow those on the left. Which sentence goes w ith which? 1 Please don't make so much noise. a lt's getting late. 1 ...f... ... . 2 I need lớn eat something soon. b They're lying. 3 I don't have sầu anywhere lớn live right now. c lt's starting khổng lồ rain. 2 4 We need to lớn leave soon. d They're trying to sell it. 3 5 They don't need their oto any more. e I'm getting hungry. 4 6 Things are not so good at work. 5 7 lt isn't true what they sa id. f l'ffi +ClryiAg {9 1V\"f\"0',1..k. 6 8 We're going to get wet . 7 g I'm looking for an apartment. 8 h The company is losing money. Complete the conversations. 1 A: I saw Brian a few days ago. n.eB: Oh, did you? . W~_ QJ./.?.. M~9.- . these days? (what I he I do) A: He's at university. B: ? (what I he I study) A: Psychology. B: ..... ....... it? (he I enjoy) A: Yes, he says it's a very good course. 2 A: Hi , Ni cola. How ......... ............. . ........ ? (your new job I go) s: Not bad. lt wasn't so good at first, but ..... ........... ..... .. better now. (it I get) A: What about Daniel ? Is he OK? s: Yes, but .. .. .... .. ... .... . ...... . his wo rk right now. (he I not I enjoy) He's been in the same job for a long time and .. ............ to lớn get bored with it. (he I begin) Put the verb into lớn the correct khung, positive sầu (I'm doing etc.) or negative (I'm not doing etc.). 1 Please don't make so much noise. ......!'m tr~~9.-- - .. (I I t ry) khổng lồ work. 2 Let's go out now. ......lt -~?.YI 1t:. r~Lttg_____ (it I rain) any more. 3 You can turn off t he radio. (I I listen) khổng lồ it. 4 Kate phoned me last night. She's on holiday in France. (she I have) a great t ime và doesn't want khổng lồ come baông chồng. 5 I want to lớn thua weight, so t his week .............. ........ .......... .. ..... (I I eat) lunch. 6 Andrew has just started evening classes. .................. ........ ... (he I learn) Japanese. 7 Paul và Sa lly have sầu had an argument. ... ....... ..................... .. ..... .............. ..... .... ......... (they I speak) to lớn each other. 8 ............. .... (I I get) tired. I need a rest. 9 Tyên ....... . .. .................. (work) today. He's taken the day off. 10 .... . . (I I look) for Sophie. Do you know where she is? Complete the sentences using the following verbs: start get increase change rise 1 The population of the world ~s _i,ncr.~mg very fast. 2 The world ......... .................................................. . Things never stay the same. 3 The situation is already bad & it .... .... ..... . ......................... .... worse. 4 The cost of living ..... ........... ............... . Every year things are more expensive sầu. 5 The weather .. . ..... khổng lồ improve sầu. The rai n has stopped, and the wind isn't as strong. 3

Study this example situation: Alex is a bus driver, but now he is in bed asleep. He is not driving a bus. (He is asleep.) but He drives a bus. (He is a bus driver.) Drive(s)/work(s)/do(es) etc. is t he present simple: 1/we/yo u/they drive/ work/ bởi vì etc. he/she/it drives/works/ does etc. We use the present simple to lớn talk about things in general. We use it lớn say that something happens all the time or repeatedly/ or that something is true in general: 0 Nurses Look after patients in hospitals. 0 I usually go away at weekends. 0 The earth goes round the su n. 0 The cà phê opens at 7.30 in the morning. Remember: They teach ... but My sist er teaches .. . I work ... but He works ... For spelling (-sor -es), see Appendix 6. We use do/does khổng lồ make questions and negative sầu sentences: vị 1/we/yo u/ they work ? 1/ w e / y o u/ t hey don't work does he/she/ it drive? he/s he / i t doesn't drive sầu do? bởi 0 I come from Canadomain authority. Where vì you come from ? 0 I don't go away very often. 0 What does this word mean? (not What means this word?) 0 Rice doesn't grow in cold climates. In the following examples, vày is also the main verb (vày you vị I doesn,t vì chưng etc.): U 'What vị you do?' 'I work in a shop.' 0 He's always so lazy. He doesn't vày anythi ng to lớn help. We use the present simple to lớn say how often we vày things: '--' I get up at 8 o'cloông xã every morning. 0 How often vày you go to lớn the dentist? C1 julie doesn't drink tea very often. 0 Robert usually goes away two or three times a year. I promise I I apologise etc. Sometimes we vị things by saying something. For example, when you promise lớn vì chưng something, you can say 'I promise ... '; when you suggest something, you can say 'I suggest ... ': 0 I promise I won't be late. (not I'm promising) 0 'What vì you suggest I do?' 'I suggest that you ... ' In the same way we say: I apologise .. . I I advise ... I I insist ... I I agree ... I I refuse ... etc. Present simple và present continuous -+ Units 3-4 Present t enses for the future -+ Unit 19

Exercises Unit ': 2 Complete the sentences using the following verbs: cause(s) connect(s) drink(s) Live(s) open(s) speak(s) take(s) 1 Tanya ......?.P~?.. ....German very well. 2 I don't often ...... ............ ... coffee. 3 The swimming pool . . ...... .......... at 7.3 0 every morning. 4 Bad driving ... ... .. ......... ...... many accidents. 5 My parents ..... ................. in a very small flat. 6 The Olympic Games .. .................. . ....... .. ...... place every four years. 7 The Panama Canal ............... ..... .. ............. the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans. Put the verb inlớn the correct form. 1 Julie .....M.e?.n\\ 4r.~k...... (not I drink) tea very often. 2 What time ........ .................... ..................................................... (the banks I dose) here? 3 I've got a car, but I .................. ....................... ..... ... ........ .. (not I use) it much. 4 'Where ... .. .. ..... .. ..... ...... ..... ...... (Ricardo I come) from?' 'From Cuba.' 5 'What .............. .... (you I do)?' Tm an electrician.' 6 lt .................................................................... .................... (take) me an hour to lớn get to lớn work. How long .................................. .......................... ....... ................... (it I take) you? 7 Look at this sentence. What ...................... . ...... ... ....................................... (this word I mean)? 8 David isn't very fit. He .... .... . . ..... .... .. .......... ... (not I do) any sport. Use the following verbs to complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the negative: believe sầu eat flow make nse tell translate 1 The earth goes round the sun. 7 An interpreter .... ....... ............... from one 2 Rice .. 49.es)'J,t grow.. in Britain. language into lớn another. 3 The sun ... ............ ......................... .... in the east. 8 Liars are people who ............................. ........ ...... the 4 Bees ................. .... .... ..... ....... ... honey. t ruth. 5 Vegetarians ... . ... meat. 9 The River Amazon ....................................... inkhổng lồ 6 An atheist in God. the Atlantic Ocean. You ask Lisa questions about herself & her family. Write the questions. 1 You know that Lisa plays tennis. You want lớn know how often. Ask her. How often .. clo yq~ ..P~ ten.D~s...... ? 2 Perhaps Lisa's sister plays tennis too. You want to know. Ask Lisa. .. your sister . . ....... ..... ... ........ ...... ........... .. ......... ...... ......... 7. 3 You know that Lisa reads a newspa per every day. You want to know which one. Ask her. ........................ .......... 7 4 You know that Lisa 's brother works. You want lớn know wha t he does. Ask Lisa. 7 5 You know that Lisa goes khổng lồ the cinema a lot. You want to know how often. Ask her. 7 .......... ......... • .. • .... .. ••••• •••••••• ••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••• •• ·-····· •• ••• •••• .. •• •• • •• • • •••• •• • ••• ••••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6 You don't know where Lisa's grandparents live. You wan t to lớn know. Ask Lisa. 7 Complete using the following: I recommkết thúc I suggest I apologise I insist I promise 1 Mr Evans is not in the offi ce today. ....J....sLA.g.g.e~t.... you t ry calling him tomorrow. 2 I won't tell anybody what you sa id. ........ .. ..... . .. .... 3 (in a restaurant) You must let me pay for the meal. 4 ... ........................ .... ...... for what I did. lt won't happen again. 5 The new resta urant in Hill Street is very good. ........................................................... it. 5

Compare: Present simple (I do) Present continuous (I am doing) We use the simple for things in general or th ings that happen repeatedly. We use the continuous for things happening at or around the time of speaking. The action is not complete. I am doing .__ I bởi past now future past now future 0 The water is boiling. Can you turn it '--- Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. off? 0 Excuse me, bởi you speak English ? 0 Listen to lớn those people. What language c lt doesn't rain very much in summer. c What do you usually vì chưng at weekends? are they speaking? 0 I always get hungry in the afternoon. 0 Let's go out. lt isn't raining now. 0 Most people Learn khổng lồ swim when they 0 'I'm busy.' 'What are you doing?' are children. 0 I'm getting hungry. Let's go and eat. ,...-- Every day the popu lation of the world c Kate wants lớn work in Italy, so she's I._.. Learning Italian. increases by about 200,000 people. c The population of the world is We use the simple for permanent situations: increasing very fast. 0 My parents Live in London. They have We use the continuous for temporary situations: lived there all their lives. C) I'm Living with some friends until I find a place of my own. C joe isn,t lazy. He works hard most of 0 A: You're working hard today. the t ime. B: Yes, I have sầu a lot to lớn bởi vì. See Unit 2 for more information . See Unit 1 for more information. I always vì chưng & I'm always doing I always bởi vì (something) = I bởi vì it every time: 0 I always go to lớn work by car. (not I'm always going) 'I 'm always doing something' has a different meaning. For example: I'm always losing things. I'm always Losing things = I thất bại t hings very often, perhaps too often, or more often than normal. More examples: 0 You're always playing computer games. You should vì something more active. (=You play computer gam es too often) 0 Tyên is never satisfied. He's always complaining. (=He complains too much) Present continu ous và simple 2 -+ Unit 4 Present t enses for th e fu ture -+ Un it 19

Exercises Unit I. 3 Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. 1 Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. .. Q)( 2 The water boils. Can you turn it off? 3 Look! That man tries to lớn open the door of your car. ...~.s.....b..o.i.U. ng 4 Can you hear those people? What vì chưng they talk about? 5 The moon goes round the earth in about 27 days. 6 I must go now. lt gets late. 7 I usually go lớn work by oto. 8 'Hurry up! lt's time lớn leave.' 'OK, I come.' 9 I hear you've got a new job. How vị you get on? 10 Paul is never late. He's always getting lớn work on time. 11 They don't get on well. They're always arguing. Put the verb into the correct size 1 present continuous or present simple. 1 Let's go out. ..l.t i.,sn 't . r~mg...... (it I not I rain) now. 2 Julia is very good at languages. S.n ~ sp~ s (she I speak) four languages very well. 3 Hurry up! .... .. .............. .... (everytoàn thân I wait) for you. 4 ' ... (you I listen) to the radio?' 'No, you can turn it off.' 5 '... ............... (you I listen) to lớn the radio every day?' 'No, just occasionally.' 6 The River Nile ............................................. (flow) inkhổng lồ the Mediterranean. 7 The ri ver ............................................... .............. (flow) very fast today- much faster than usual. 8 ....................... ...... ..... . ..... .... ..... .... ............ ....... (we I usually I grow) vegetab les in our garden, but this year ..... ... .... .. .. ...... ..... ...... ... ...... (we I not I grow) any. 9 A: How's your English? s: Not bad. I think ..... ..... .. ......... . ..... .... ... (it I improve) slowly. 10 Rachel is in Thành Phố New York right now. . ..... ........ ..... .. (she I stay) at the Park Hotel. ..... ........ ... ....... (she I always I stay) there when she's in Thành Phố New York. 11 Can we stop walking soon? ........................... ..... ... .............. ..... (I I start) to feel tired. 12 A: Can you drive? s: ............. ........................................................ (I I learn). My father ........................ ......... ........................... (teach) me. 13 Normally ...... . .... ..... . .......................... ............. (I I finish) work at five sầu, but this week ..... ... ....... ..................... (I I work) until six to earn a little more money. 14 My parents ... ............................ (live) in Manchester. They were born there & have never lived anywhere else. Where ................. .... ..... . ....... ... . (your parents I live)? 15 Sonia . ...... . ..... (look) for a place khổng lồ live. ....... ...... .. .. ...... (she I stay) with her sister until she finds somewhere. 16 A: What .... ........ . .... ... . ...................................... .... .... (your brother I do)? s: He's an architect, but .............................................................................................. (he I not I work) at the moment. 17 (at a party) .. ....... . ....... ................................... . ... ... ...... (I I usually enjoy) parties, but ................................. ..... ... . .............. (I /not I enjoy) th is one very much. Finish B's sentences. Use always -ing. 1 A : I've sầu lost my phone again. s: Not again! . YotA 're o..LN~?....L.o?ill.g .!jOtAr pY!pn~...................... .. 2 A: The ca r has broken down aga in. s: That car is useless. lt ........ .................. . .... 3 A: Look! You've made the same mistake again. s: Oh no, not again! I .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 A: O h, I've forgotten my glasses again.

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s: Typical! ...................... 7

We use continuous forms for actions & happenings that have started but not finished (they are eating I it is raining etc.). Some verbs (for example, know and Like) are not normally used in this way. We don't say 'I am knowing' or 'they are liking'; we say 'I know', 'they Like'. The following verbs are not normally used in the present continuous: Like want need prefer know realise suppose mean understand believe sầu rethành viên belong fit contain consist seem 0 I'm hungry. I want something lớn eat. (not I'm wanting) 0 Do you understand what I mean? r-- Anmãng cầu doesn't seem very happy at the moment. Think When think means 'believe' or 'have sầu an opinion ', we bởi not use the continuous: lJ I think Mary is Canadian, but I'm not sure. (not I'm thinking) C What vị you think of my plan? (=What is your opinion?) When think means 'consider', the continuous is possible: U I'm thinking about what happened. I often think about it. 0 Nicky is thinking of giving up her job. (=she is considering it) See hear smell taste We normally use the present simple (not continuous) with these verbs: U Do you see that man over there? (not Are you seeing) 0 This room smells. Lefs open a window. We often use can + see/ hear/smell/taste: 0 I can hear a strange noise. Can you hear it? Look feel You can use the present simple or continuous to say how somebody toàn thân looks or feels now: U You Look well today. or You're Looking well today. 0 How vì you feel now? or How are you feeling now? but LJ I usually feel tired in the morning. (not I'm usually feeling) He is selfish & He is being selfish He's being= He's behaving I He's acting. Compare: (J I can't understand why he's being so selfish. He isn't usually like that. (being selfish = behaving selfishly at the moment) 0 He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish. (not He is being) (= He is selfish generally, not only at the moment) We use am/is/are being lớn say how sometoàn thân is behaving. lt is not usually possible in other sentences: 0 it's hot today. (not lt is being hot) U Sarah is very tired . (not is being tired) Present continuous và syên ổn ple 1 ~ Unit 3 Have~ Unit 17 Present tenses fo r t he fu ture ~ Unit 19

Exercises Unit 4 Put the verb inlớn the correct khung, present continuous or present simple. 1 Are you hungry? ......D~!...,HOtA ..v->~t...... (you I want) something lớn eat? 2 Don't put the dictionary away. ........ ....... (I I use) it. 3 Don 't put the dictionary away. ......... ..... (1 I need) it. 4 Who is that man? What ... .. . ............................. ........... (he I wan t )? 5 Who is that man? Why .... ... .... ...................... ........ . .............. (he I look) at us? 6 Alan says he's 80 years old, but nobody ... . ... ....................... ..... .. .. . ..... (bel ieve) hyên . 7 She told me her name, but .. ....... ............. ............ (I I not I remem ber) it now. 8 ................ . . .................. ....... (I I think) of sell ing my oto. Would you be interested in buy ing it? 9 ..... . ............... (I I think) you shou ld sell your oto. .... .... (you I not I use) it very often. 10 Air ............. .. ..... ..................... ........... (consist) mainly of nitroren và oxygene. Use the words in brackets lớn make sentences. (You should also study Unit 3 before you bởi this exercise.) (what I you I do?) (you I not I seem I very happy today) ....Y9~....4Pnlt. s~............ n......X.~M ... CA.f>P~ -~~-'-----· (the di nner I smell I good) (these gloves I not I fit I me) Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. 1 N1.cky .IS t h.mk'mg of g.1v.mg up her J.Ob. Ok.... .. . ....... .......... .. ..... . ........................ 2 Are yo u beli eving in God? ...... .. ...... . ..... ......................... . 3 I'm feeling hungry. Is t here anything to eat? ..... . ..... .... .. ...... 4 Th is sa uce is great. lt's tasting really good. ... ....................... .. .. . ............. 5 I'm thinking this is your key. Am I right? ................................................................ Complete the sentences using the most suitable form of be. Use am/is/are being (continuous) where possible; otherwise use am/is/are (simple). 1 I ca n't understand why . h e1s___ __ so selfish. He isn't usually lượt thích that. 2 Sa rah ...... .... . .. . .. very nice khổng lồ me at the moment. I wonder w hy. 3 Yo u'll lượt thích Sophi e w hen you meet her. She .. ....................... ............................. very n1ce. 4 You're usually very patient, so w hy ..... ..... . ................................. ........ so unreasomãng cầu ble about waiting ten more minutes? 5 Why isn't Steve at w ork today? .................. . ill? 9

Study this example: ~0 756-179~00 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician & composer. He Lived from 1756 to lớn 1791. He started composing at the age of five & wrote more than 600 pieces of music. He was only 35 years old when he died . lived/ started/ wrote/ was/ died are all past simple. Very often the past simple ends in -ed (regular verbs) : 0 I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in a department store. 0 We invited them to lớn our các buổi tiệc nhỏ, but they decided not to come. 0 The police stopped me on my way trang chủ last night. 0 Laura passed her exam because she studied very hard. For spelling (stopped, studied etc.), see Appendix 6. But many verbs are irregular. The past simple does not over in -ed. For example: write --1 wrote 0 Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music. see ~ saw 0 We saw Tanya in town a few days ago. go ~ went C) I went lớn the cinema three times last week. shut ~ shut 0 lt was cold, so I shut the window. In questions và negatives we use did/didn't+ infinitive sầu (enjoy/see/go etc.) : she enjoyed you enjoy? I didn't enjoy they saw did she see ? she see went they go 0 they go? 0 A: Did you go out last night? 0 a: Yes, I went khổng lồ the cinema, but I didn't enjoy the film much. 0 'When did MrThomas die?' 'About ten years ago.' They didn't invite us khổng lồ the các buổi party, so we didn't go. 'Did you have sầu time lớn vị the shopping?' 'No, I didn't.' In the following examples, bởi vì is the main verb in the sentence (did ... bởi vì I didn't do): 0 What did you vị at the weekend? (not What did you at the weekend?) 0 I didn't vị anything. (not I didn't anything) The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were: 1/he/she/it was/wasn't was 1/he/she/it? we/you/they were/ weren't were we/you/they? cảnh báo that we vì not use did in negatives và questions with was/were: 0 I was angry because they were late. 0 Was the weather good when you were on holiday? 0 They weren't able to lớn come because they were so busy. 0 Did you go out last night or were you too tired? Past simple và past continuous _. Unit 6 Past simple và presen t perf ect _. Units 12- 14

Exercises Read what Laura says about a typical working day: I usually get up at 7 o'clochồng and have sầu a big breakfast. I walk to lớn work, which takes me about half an hour. I start work at 8.45 . I never have sầu lunch. I finish .__\"\"\" work at 5 o'cloông xã. I'm always tired when I get home page. I usually cook a meal in the evening. I don't usually go out. I go to bed at about 11 o'cloông xã, and I always sleep well. Laura Yesterday was a typical working day for Laura. Write what she did or didn't bởi vì yesterday. 1 ~h~. _gpt- (Ap at 7 o'clochồng. 7 ........ ....... .. .......... ....... ........... at 5 o'clochồng. 2 She .. . a big breakfast. 8 ... ...tired when ... trang chủ. 3 She .... . ..... ....... ........ . .... ... ........... 9 .... ........ .......... a mea l yesterday evening. 4 lt .... ......... .... .... ....... ..... ..... ........ ... khổng lồ get lớn work. 10 ............... .............. ......................... ... out yesterday evening. 5 ..................................... ............................... .. .... ....... at 8.45. 11 ................ ........ ...................... ............................. at 11 o'clochồng. 6 .. ... .. ... lunch. 12 ............. .... well last night. Complete the sentences using the following verbs in the correct form: ·write buy catch cost fall hurt sell spover teach throw 1 Mozart ~li\"O~ more than 600 pieces of music. 2 ' How did you learn khổng lồ drive?' 'My father . .......... me.' 3 We couldn't afford to lớn keep our oto, so we ... . ..... . it. 4 Dave sầu ...... ............. ................... down the stairs this morning & ... ............. ................ his leg. 5 joe ..................... .................... the ball lớn Sue, who .. ..... ... .... ............... it. 6 Ann .......... ......... ...... a lot of money yesterday. She . ... ........... a dress which ........... ..... .. ..... £100. You ask James about his holiday. Write your questions. Hi. How are things? Fine, thanks. I've sầu just had a great holiday. 1 Where ......cLUL ~ou... go... ? To the U.S. We went on a trip from San Francisteo khổng lồ Denver. 2 How ............... . ....... ............ ..... ... . .................... ........ . ? By car? Yes, we hired a oto in San Francisco. 3 lt's a long way lớn drive. How long ....... .......... .. .................... ......... . ..... ......................... khổng lồ get khổng lồ Denver? Two weeks. 4 Where ........... ? In hotels? Yes, small hotels or motels. 5 .. ........................ ....... .. ........ . .... ... ... . .............. ... good? Yes, but it was very hot - sometimes too hot. 6 ............ the Grvà Canyon ? Of teo urse. lt was wonderful. Complete the sentences. Put the verb inlớn the correct size, positive sầu or negative sầu. 1 lt was warm, so I J-99.~ off my coat. (take) 2 The film wasn't very good. I . d.i.4-D.~.t. _e~o~ it much. (enjoy) 3 I knew Sarah was busy, so I .... .. . .. ..................... .. . ....................... her. (disturb) 4 We were very tired, so we ...... .. ........ ........... ............... the tiệc nhỏ ea rly. (leave) 5 The bed was very uncomfortable. I.... ........... ....... .................................................... well. (sleep) 6 The wi ndow was open và a bird ................. . . .... .. ........... ..... .... . . inkhổng lồ the room. (fly) 7 The khách sạn wasn't very expensive. lt .. ..... . ..... . ......... . ............. much khổng lồ stay there. (cost) 8 I was in a hurry, so I....... . . ..... .... ... ........... time to lớn phone you. (have) 9 lt was hard carrying the bags. They .............. ... ...... ......................... .. ................ very heavy. (be) 11

Study this example situation: Yesterday Karen and jyên played te nn is. They started at 10 o'cloông chồng and finished at 11.30. So, at 10.30 they were playing tennis. They were playing = they were in the middle of playing. They had not finished playing. Was/were -ing is the past continuous: 1/he/she/ it was playing doing we/you/they were working etc. Iwas doing something= I was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time, but had not finished: Istarted doing Iwas doing Ifinished doing now • ~ ·~ • past past 0 This time last year I was living in Brazil. C What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night? 0 Iwaved lớn Helen, but she wasn't looking. Compare the past continuous (I was doing) và past simple (I did): Past continuous (in the middle of an action) Past simple (complete action) C I was walking home page when I met Dan. 0 Iwalked trang chủ after the party last night. (in the middle of walking home) (=all the way, completely) 0 Kate was watching TV when we 0 Kate watched television a lot when she arrived. was ill last year. We often use the past simple and the past continuous together to lớn say that something happened in the middle of something else: 0 Matt phoned while we were having dinner. 0 lt was raining when Igot up. 0 Isaw you in the park yesterday. You were sitting on the grass và reading a book. 0 I hurt my bachồng while I was working in the garden. But we use the past simple lớn say that one thing happened after another: 0 I was walking along the road when Isaw Dan. So Istopped, and we had a chat. Compare: 0 When Karen arrived, we were having C When Karen arrived, we had dinner. dinner. (= we had already started (= Karen arrived , và then we had before she arrived) dinner) Some verbs (for example, know & want) are not normally used in the continuous (see Unit 4A): ~ We were good friends. We knew each other well. (not We were knowing) 0 I was enjoying the tiệc nhỏ, but Chris wanted to lớn go trang chủ. (not was wanting)

Exercises · Unit 6 What were you doing at these times? Write sentences as in the examples. The past continuous is not always necessary (see the second example). 1 (at 8 o'clochồng yesterday evening) ....1....vv.~ ho...vmg....~rter.. ........... ...... .... .... .... .. .......................... 2 (at 5 o'cloông chồng last Monday) I w~ .O.n Q.- ..b

Study this example situation: Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has Lost his key. He has Lost his key= He lost it recently, and he still doesn't have it. Have/has Lost is the present perfect simple: 1/we/they/you have sầu (=I 've sầu etc.) finished he/she/it has (= he's etc.) Lost done been etc. The present perfect simple is have/has+ past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc.), but many important verbs are irregular (Lost/done/written etc.). For a danh sách of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1. When we say that 'something has happened', this is usually new information: 0 Owl I've cut my finger. 0 The road is closed. There's been (there has been) an accident. 0 (from the news) Police have sầu arrested two men in connection with the robbery. When we use the present perfect, there is a con nection with now. The action in the past has a result now: 0 'Where's your key?' 'I don 't know. I've Lost it.' (=I don't have it now) 0 He told me his name, but I've forgotten it. (= I can't remember it now) 0 'Is Sally here?' 'No, she's gone out.' (=she is out now) 0 I can't find my bag. Have sầu you seen it? (= Do you know where it is now?) Note the difference between gone (to) và been (to): 0 james is on holiday. He has gone khổng lồ Italy. (= he is there now or on his way there) 0 Jane is back trang chủ now. She has been to Italy. (=she has now come back) You can use the present perfect with just, already và yet. just = a short time ago: 0 'Are you hungry?' 'No, I've sầu just had lunch.' 0 Hello. Have sầu you just arrived? We use already to lớn say that something happened sooner than expected: 0 'Don't forget to lớn pay your electrithành phố bill.' 'I 've sầu already paid it.' 0 'What time is Mark leaving?' 'He's already Left.' Yet = until now. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something khổng lồ happen. Use yet only in questions và negative sầu sentences: 0 Has it stopped raining yet? 0 I've sầu written the emai l, but I haven't sent it yet. You can also use the past simple (did, went, had etc.) in the examples on this page. So you can say: 0 ' Is Sally here?' 'No, she went out.' or 'No, she's gone out.' 0 'Are you hungry?' 'No, I just had lunch.' or 'No, I've sầu just had lunch.' Present pe rfect ~ Units 8, 11 Been to~ Units 8A, 126A Present perfect co ntinuous ~ Units 9- 10 Present perfect and past ~ Units 12- 14 Yet & already~ Unit 111 American English ~ Appendix 7

Exercises Unit 7 Read the situations and write sentences. Use the following verbs in the present perfect: . arnve break fall go up grow 1mprove sầu lose 1 Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. Tom .....h.~? . Lo~ t. .b ~s.....k~ .:. 2 Lisa can't walk and her leg is in plaster. 3 Last week the bus fare was £1 .80 . Now it is £2. Lisa .................... ..... ............................................. 4 Maria's English wasn't very good. Now it is better. The bus fa re ........................................ ................ 5 Dan didn't have sầu a beard before. Now he has a beard. Her English ............................................................... 6 This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. Dan ........ ..... ....................................... 7 The temperature was đôi mươi degrees. Now it is only 12. The letter ..... . ....................... . ....... ............... The ............. .................................................................... Put in been or gone. 1 James is on holiday. He's ..gone . khổng lồ Italy. 2 Hello! I've just ........... ... khổng lồ the shops. I've sầu bought lots of things. 3 Alice isn't here at the moment. She's ..... .......... ............................to lớn the shop lớn get a newspaper. 4 Tom has ..................................... out. He'll be bachồng in about an hour. 5 'Are you going khổng lồ the bank?' 'No, I've sầu already ..... . ....................... ..... to lớn the bank.' - Complete B's sentences. Make sentences from the words in brackets. A B 1 Would you lượt thích something to lớn eat? 2 Do you know where Julia is? No, th anks. .1..\\~ j~st. h~ ..W..nQ1..~. 3 What time is David leaving? 4 What's in the newspaper today? (I I just I have I lunch) 5 Is Sue com ing khổng lồ the cinema with us? 6 Are your friends here yet? Yes, .................................. ........................................................ ......................... 7 What does Tim think about your plan ? (I I just I see I her) (he I already I leave) I don't know. ............................................................... ................................ (I I not I read I it yet) No, ....... ............ ...... (she I already I see I the film) Yes, ........................................................................................................................ ~ (they I just I arrive) (we I not I tell I hyên y et) Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet. 1 After lunch you go to lớn see a fri end at her house. She says, 'Would you lượt thích somethi ng lớn eat?' You say: No thank you. . 1:.v.e J~.s.t.. .n~ wn

Study this example conversation: DAVE: Have sầu you travelled a lot, jane? jane's life JANE: Yes, I've sầu been khổng lồ lots of places. DAVE: Really? Have sầu you ever been to lớn China? (a period until now) JANE: Yes, I've sầu been to Đài Loan Trung Quốc twice. DAVE: What about India? past now JANE: No, I haven't been to India. When we talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now, we use the present perfect (have been I have sầu traveLLed etc.). Here, Dave sầu và jane are talking about the places jane has visited in her life, which is a period that continues until now. Some more examples: ~ Have sầu you ever eaten caviar? C We've sầu never had a car. C 1Have sầu you read Hamlet?' I No, I haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays.' '= Susan really loves that film. She's seen it eight times! 0 What a boring film! lt's the most boring film I've ever seen. Been (to)= visited: Cl I've sầu never been lớn Trung Quốc. Have you been there? In the following examples too, the speakers are talking about a period that continues until now (recently I in the Last few days I so far I since breakfast etc.): ~ Have sầu you heard anything from Brian recently? recently ___., - in the last few days ..... C I've sầu met a lot of people in the Last few days. - - since breakfast 0 Everything is going well. We haven't had any problems so far. 0 I'm hungry. I haven't eaten anything since breakfast. past now (=from breakfast until now) 0 lt's good khổng lồ see you again. We haven't seen each other for a Long time. In the same way we use the present perfect with today I this evening I this year etc. when these periods are not finished at the time of speaking (see also Unit 14B): 0 I've drunk four cups of coffee today. - - - - today --·~ \\ • 0 Have sầu you had a holiday this year? C I haven't seen Tom this morning. Have you? past now U Rob hasn't worked very hard this term. We say: lt's the (first) time something has happened. For example: This is t he first time 0 Don is having a driving lesson . lt's his first one. lt's the first time he has driven a oto. (not drives) or He has never driven a car before. 0 Sarah has lost her passport again. This is the second time this has happened. (not happens) C Bill is phoning his girlfrikết thúc again. That's the third time he's phoned her this evening. Prese nt perfect 1 _. Unit 7 Present pe rfect+ for/ since_. Units 11- 12 Present perfect and past _. Units 12-14

Exercises You ask people about things they have sầu done. Write questions with ever. 1 (ride I horse?) .. .H~Y.~...H9.0 .. ever..r.~Y1. ~. rw.r.~.~.?.... .... ..... .. .... . . ..... . . . . . . .. .. ................... ........................... 2 (be I California?) Have sầu ....... ... ..... ............. .. .. ......... ..... ...................... ...... .............. ..... ............................ 3 (run I marathon?) .... ........... ....... ...................... 4 (speak I famous person?) ............................................ ............................................................................................... ...... ................. 5 (most beautiful place I visit?) Whafs ............................................................................................... ......... .............................. Complete B's answers. Some sentences are positive sầu and some negative sầu. Use these verbs: be be eat happen have have sầu meet play read see try A B 1 What's Mark's sister like? 2 Is everything going well? I've sầu no idea. I\\e n~v.~.. met her. 3 Are you hungry? 4 Can you play chess? Yes, we .. h.~v~n~t- bAA...... any problems so far. 5 Are you enjoying your holiday? Yes. I .................................. ......................................... much today. 6 What's that book like? 7 Is Brussels an interesting place? Yes, but ....... .... for ages. 8 I hear your oto broke down Yes, it's the best holiday . ..... . ... .. .. ................... for a again yesterday. long time. 9 Do you like caviar? 10 Mike was late for work again today. I don't know. ............................................ .......................... it. 11 Who's that woman by the door? I've no idea. t h ere. Yes, it's the second time .... this month. I don't know. ...................................................................... it. Again? He lat e every day this week. I don't know. .. ............................................................ her before. Write four sentences about yourself. Use I haven't & choose from the boxes. used a computer travelled by bus eaten any fruit today been to the cinema read a book lost anything this week recently 2 ..... .... .......................................... . for ages 3 ............................. ....................................... 4 ............................................................................................................................................................................. .... ................... ............. SinCe ... 5 ...................................................................................................................................................... .. this year Read the situations and write sentences as shown in the example. 1 jaông chồng is driving a oto, but he's very nervous & not sure w hat lớn bởi. You ask: .. ...H.~Y.e HO.(A....~r.~Y.~Y.I... c&...QA.r....P.~fo.r~.?................................................................................................... ......................... He says: .....No.). tn.~~....~?......t.h ~.. fir.~t.

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